Taken from Essential Teacher, Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2007, Alexandria, VA: TESOL
An effective push-in model is when teachers team teach. This is where an ESL teacher "pushes-in" to a general education classroom. What this does is to increase the teacher-child ratio, allowing for differentiation and small group instruction in a manner that is not possible for one teacher.
In the best model of this, the teachers have equal responsibility planning instruction. This can happen in many ways:
- small, heterogeneous groups can be pulled aside for reinforcement of ideas (mixing groups avoids isolating ELs, allows for scaffolding of instruction)
- Both teachers make contributions to the lesson ("classroom teacher contributes knowledge of the curriculum and of all of the students while the ESL teacher brings information about teaching strategies, second language acquisition and diverse cultures."
- TEACH AND WRITE: "One teacher teaches the lesson while the other teacher records the important points on an overhead/Smartboard...ELLs benefit from this because information is being presented to them through different modalities."
- STATION TEACHING: "Students rotate through predetermined stations or activities. Each teacher works with all the students as they come through a station."
- PARALLEL TEACHING: "The class is divided into two groups and each teacher delivers the content information to their group simultaneously. This allows teachers with distinctly different styles to work together."
- ALTERNATIVE TEACHING: "Teachers divide responsibility for the planning. The majority of the students work in a large group setting but some students are pulled into a smaller group for pre-teaching or other types of individualized instruction. The same students should not be pulled into the same group each time."
- TEAM TEACHING: "Teachers co-teach each lesson. This requires a great deal of planning and cooperation. Both teachers are responsible for all of the students."
- LEAD AND SUPPORT: "The lead teacher instructs the class while the supporting teacher provides assistance as she roams around the room. The supporting teacher may elaborate the important points or retell parts of the lesson. Ideally, classroom and ESL teachers should alternate roles so that one is not always the lead teacher."
What co-teaching is not:
- Turning over the class to the ESL teacher and using it as a prep time
- Purposeless roving around the room (goals of instruction have not been discussed)
- Small group interventions (again, not connected to classroom routine nor discussed)
Here are the benefits to Co-teaching-
- EL students have both social and academic benefits (they are exposed to mainstream content with support)
- They are not pulled out of class
Some concerns are:
- The EL teacher feels like an aide
- They feel like they lose "ownership" of their students
- Beginners might benefit from pull-out
The author (Judie Haynes) and I believe the benefits outweigh the drawbacks because collaboration allows for more creative teaching. The discussions of the needs of the classroom and students while planning makes instruction more focused and specific. It's nice to be supported :)
...now that (literacy) coaching is embedded professional development.
...that a (literacy) coach has to push teachers to learn and try new things in a comfortable way, without being threatening.
...that (literacy) coaches need to ground their work in theory.
...that (literacy) coaches need a network of other literacy coaches to be/feel successful.
...(literacy) coaches are needed to effectively implement change.
...that (literacy) coaches must be a peer and a leader.
...that the role of the (literacy) coach must be clearly defined for teachers in order to be effective.
...that (literacy) coaching is not the same as being a literacy coordinator, peer coach, or reading specialist.
...that some people are resistant to what a (literacy) coach brings because they don't understand the benefits of having one.
...that a (literacy) coach must build trust and is an advocate for teachers.
...that (literacy) coaches facilitate collaboration among teachers.
...that a (literacy) coach fosters and facilitates learning communities.
...it is deeply dependent on the support of the administration.
...a (literacy) coach must be prepared to and able to build relationships with teachers.
...that (literacy) coaching may be a lonely occupation.
...(literacy) coaching is not stagnant. The role should change to reflect the needs of students, teachers, district...
...(literacy) coaches should work to provide current research that is grounded in best practices.
...that (literacy) coaches must be extremely conscious of words and actions, going in both directions.
...that (literacy) coaches need to find balance by seeing what needs to change and how to make it happen.
...that (literacy) coaches need time management and organizational skills.
...that (literacy) coaches must be able to advocate for what they believe.
...that (literacy coaches must be flexible.
...that a (literacy) coach must be a fresh alternative.
...that a (literacy) coach needs to have the ability to teach children and adults.